Thursday, August 27, 2020

Anna Karenina essays

Anna Karenina papers Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy is a novel about affection and marriage among the Russian gentry during the 1870s. Anna is youthful, delightful lady wedded to a ground-breaking government serve, Karenin. She goes gaga for the rich Count Vronsky and subsequent to getting pregnant by him, leaves her better half Karenin and her child Seryozha to live with her sweetheart. In spite of the intercession of companions, for example, her sibling Oblonsky, a miscreant himself, she can't acquire a separation, and lives disconnected from the general public that once celebrated her. As a man, Vronsky appreciates relative social opportunity, which makes Anna have progressively extraordinary attacks of envy. In view of her consistent doubt, she imagines that Vronskys love for her is diminishing. Their story is finished by an energizing finale that moves the peruser. Joined with the narrative of Anna, is the story of Levin, a keen, enthusiastic youngster who tries to wed the Princess Catherine Shcherbatskaya, known as Kitty. Kitty dismisses his first proposition since she accepts that Vronsky, who played with her before he met Anna, expects to wed her. Levin is crushed and pulls back to his nation domain and takes a shot at a book about horticulture. In any case, the couple reunites through another appearance of Oblonsky, Kittys brother by marriage, and they find that they are profoundly infatuated. Kitty blissfully acknowledges Levins second proposition. When hitched, they live cheerfully in the nation, have their families and visitors during the summers, and have a child. Levin's philosophical uncertainty and strict incredulity inconvenience him regardless of his household satisfaction, yet, after a profound edification, he at long last perceives that the limit with regards to goodness is inborn. He dedicates himself to living for his friends a nd family, and to giving his life importance by propelling the desire of God. Anna Karenina is an immortal great and has been acclaimed by numerous artistic pundits as the best or perhaps the best novel ever. One pundit te... <! Anna Karenina articles The universe of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina is a world managed by some coincidence. From the exceptionally opening parts, where a guard is unintentionally run over by a train at Moscow's Petersburg station, to the last, climactic scenes of discretionary obliteration when Levin scans for Kitty in a timberland plagued by lightning, characters are united and constrained without hesitation without wanting to unintentionally and, in some cases, setback. That Anna and Vronsky ever meet and start the game changing undertaking that turns into the focal point of the novel is itself a result of a long chain of inconsequential occasions: coming full circle Anna's imparting a billet to Vronsky's mom en route to accommodate Dolly and Stiva in Moscow. But then, as an epigraph to this apparently turbulent universe of chance occasion, an apparently irreverent world that would appear to neither rebuff sin nor reward great, Tolstoy picks a citation that comes initially from the book of Deuteronomy's melod y of Moses: Retaliation is mine; I will reimburse. Originally (and to some degree barely) thought to allude to Anna's last shunning from the more elite classes of society that rebuff her for her wrongdoings, the epigraph is the way in to Tolstoy's inconspicuous and logically complex origination of profound quality that precludes the presence from claiming a widespread and unavoidable equity and gets obligation from the person's opportunity to make and afterward tie himself to laws. Three of the novel's characters, Stephen Oblonsky, Constatine Levin, and Anna Karenina, all somehow or another associated with the Shcherbatsky family, serve to represent the different ways that Tolstoy's individual can be, or neglect to be, acceptable, the different manners by which a character can be good, improper or irreverent using thought, or reason, to make need outside of the confounded requests of a disorganized reality. Tolstoy's reality is for sure a hireling to risk, and the plot depends so in tensely on happenstance that Anna Karenina, considering the numerous components of Menippian sa... <! Anna Karenina expositions Anna and Levin both experience revelations toward the finish of the novel. Their dreams are altogether different however, which is unexpected in light of the fact that Tolstoy depicts Anna and Levin as pairs. The consummation makes a difference and shows how two comparative individuals can wind up in totally different circumstances. Enthusiasm is a significant topic in relating Anna and Levin's lives on the grounds that for Anna's situation energy prompted obliteration, however Levin's energy drove him to the ruler. Prior to we even meet Anna, we meet Levin, whose story will run corresponding to Anna's through the span of the book. Anna and Levin share numerous character attributes, liberality and sympathy, incidental madness, and a win or bust disposition with regards to living. Much the same as Anna, Levin can't stand carrying on with his existence with inconsistencies between his activities and convictions. The distinctions are that Levin can discover socially adequate outlets for his character needs and wants, and that Levin isn't compelled to a similar world that Anna is. Levin lives in the open country, where the principles of the social request don't have any significant bearing and he feels awkward in urban areas, though Anna feels awkward away from them. The disclosures of Anna and Levin are finished differences to each other. The sections paving the way to Anna's self destruction are exceptionally discouraging. She is totally separated from the real world. The offensiveness of her relationship, her deeds, and her conduct all smash Anna as she runs quickly around Petersburg. To Anna the whole world has gotten terrible and the main thing Anna can consider is to end the hopelessness by murdering herself. She additionally ends it all to rebuff Vronsky however I feel that it is likewise to some degree to rebuff herself for her mix-ups. The way that her last idea is a petition is intriguing in light of the fact that it demonstrates that she wasn't totally lost from her confidence. To finish the account of Levin, Tolstoy shows how one may pick life instead of death. It additionally finishes Tolstoy's depiction of Russi... <!

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Foundation for Great Essay Writing

The Foundation for Great Essay Writing On this scene, we take a gander at the establishment of an extraordinary exposition and a few hints for keeping in touch with one. The subjects we spread are:First, how to sort out your considerations in an intelligible manner. Without this ability, it is hard for any understudy to gain higher degrees and prevail in their profession, paying little mind to the field they are in. In the event that your exposition is outlandish in its association, your perusers will be far less inclined to follow what youve written to decide your insight into the theme. Fundamentally, your exposition will exhibit obviously whether you are a solid source or not.Second, we see how to show your insight into what you are expounding on, and how to lead the required research. Basically, this mirrors the measure of work you put into your examinations. Educators and entrance advisory boards need to realize that you are eager to invest the push to learn and make progress in your scholarly interests, and this is inconceivable without cautiously and basically looking into different topics.Third, we talk about the capacity to direct smart discussion. The establishment of clever discussion depends on knowing all sides of the issue and realizing how to communicate your supposition without distancing crowds who may oppose this idea. An understudy may know their theme well, yet without the capacity to introduce their insight into the point consciously, their validity and mastery are questioned.Fourth, we take a gander at the requirement for fantastic syntax and composing abilities, since these aptitudes are essential for the viable correspondence of ideas.And at long last, we examine the significance of being careful when fulfilling a time constraint. In some cases, the most elegantly composed papers get dismissed or get a low score, just on the grounds that a cutoff time was not met.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Hippocratic Medicine as a Departure from its Egyptian and Mesopotamian Essay

Hippocratic Medicine as a Departure from its Egyptian and Mesopotamian Forerunners - Essay Example The paper â€Å"Hippocratic Medicine as a Departure from its Egyptian and Mesopotamian Forerunners† recommends that there are critical manners by which Hippocratic medication was an extreme takeoff from the religious recuperating in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Greek medication was viewed as the establishment of medication in the Western world. This view started to change as the Western world started increased a more extensive information on the historical backdrop of medication, coming about to a connection being built up between the before Mesopotamian and Egyptian medication and that of Ancient Greece. It is imperative to audit this relationship to see whether the decrease in the notoriety of Greek medication is defended. It is proposed to analyze whether Greek medication was in reality an extreme takeoff from the mending dependent on strict convictions that was rehearsed in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. This paper asserts that Hippocratic medication was in certainty suc h an extreme takeoff on account of its utilization of surgeries, its idea of specialist obligation, and its premise in naturalism. Naturalism is the possibility that occasions are clarified distinctly based on causes that exist in nature. For example, a specialist may ascribe a patient’s affliction to an adjustment in the climate or to an absence of activity, an irregularity in diet, or an off base situation of the body during treatment. Naturalism will in general decide the reasons for a sickness dependent on what can be seen and inspected in the regular world as opposed to on powerful powers that happen in the otherworldly domain.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Moral And Religious Education Help Fight Corruption With A...

In this paper I will be addressing the research question, ‘to what extend does moral and religious education help fight corruption with in a sovereign country.’ In the reading by Augusto Là ³pez Claros, a Director at the World Bank Group, he stated that the corruption can be combatted with religious and moral education and by eliminating opportunities by doing away with rules that can encourage corrupt behavior. In other words, to be successful in fighting corruption within a sovereign country, the country needs to make deep cultural and structural changes. But is there any proof that shows that an increase in moral and religious education and creating a more religious culture will actually fight corruption? Mr. Là ³pez Claros has control over†¦show more content†¦Within this report, we will be mainly identifying political and grand corruption. However, the participant observations are about petty corruption. Masculinity: The masculinity side of culture represents a preference in achievement, heroism, and material rewards as success. This is the opposite of femininity, which represents a preference for cooperation, caring for the weak, and quality of life. Power Distance: The power distance represents how the culture handles inequalities between people. Higher power distance, the more the culture prefers and accepts a hierarchical order. Individualism: The individualism dimension of a culture is where individuals are expected to take care of only themselves and their immediate families. The opposite is collectivism, where an individual is loyal to a particular in-group. Iceland Background The first case study is about Iceland. Iceland, according to the Corruption Perceptions Index of 2015 conducted by Transparency intentional, is ranked 13th out of 168 countries on corruption perception. Iceland is a proactive country when it comes to fighting corruption. Only 3% of the population reported paying a bribe in 2010, however 53% of Iceland’s citizens feel that corruption has increased since 2007. But that is largely due to Iceland’s current affairs. For this case study, I will be looking at the history of the Landsbanki bank and the Panama Papers with respect to Ólà ¶f Nordal and Sigmundur David Gunnlaugsson. On OctoberShow MoreRelated5- Islamic Civilization (fall; a force; world peace).6212 Words   |  25 PagesEurope in its intellectual development, military prowess and legal organisation. However starting around 1700 Europeans progressively colonised virtually all Muslim majority countries which did not gain their independence until the mid-20th century. Today most Muslim majority countries are relatively backward compared with the countries of Europe, North America and Japan. This naturally invites the question What went wrong? I have encountered two external reasons from many Muslims which I regardRead MoreInternal Threats to Pakistan10157 Words   |  41 PagesDYNAMICS OF INTERNAL THREATS TO NATIONAL SECURITY Introduction 1. The multifarious threats to the security of Pakistan whether external or internal, have intensified in the 21st century. Unfortunately, no threat posed to the security of this country since the time of her inception has ever been fully controlled or eradicated. According to Quaid-e-Azam, â€Å"Pakistan was a cyclic revolution without parallel or precedence in history†. He wanted to make it a State that was united and powerful, a StateRead MoreCompare and Contrast Your Native Country to the United States with Regard to Religion, Politics, Social Behaviour and Economic Conditions2523 Words   |  11 PagesCompare and Contrast your native country to the United States with regard to Religion, Politics, Social Behaviour and Economic conditions. Vimal Chandra Kaza, 1491430 EPS:Occup Purps-Sci Tech Professor Michael O’Toole Fairleigh Dickinson University â€Å"To me, it seems a dreadful indignity to have a soul controlled by geography.† ~George Santayana India and the United States of America are two of the world’s largest and prominent democracies. In the past few decades, they haveRead MoreCultural Analysis Thailand9709 Words   |  39 PagesGlobal Business Cultural Analysis: Thailand Rhonda C. Scott Liberty University Abstract The country of Thailand is an emerging nation in the globalized world. Over the past two decades, the country has experienced a multitude of changes in the political, economic and international arenas. As a nation, it has survived the economic crisis of 1997, the tsunami of 2004, the government coup in 2006, the flooding of 2011 and is preparing for a change in the views of the nation withRead MoreSectarianism: Islam and Pakistan4378 Words   |  18 Pagesbe defined as divisions within a group, such as different denominations within a religion, based on perceived differences. It does not necessarily result in conflict, but historically, sectarian divisions along religious and political lines have contributed to conflict. Sectarian religious conflict has contributed to some of the most intractable, bitter and painful episodes of aggression and persecution throughout history. For instance, conflict between Irish Catholics and Protestants has existedRead MoreTransition from Socialism to Capitalism in Bosnia19426 Words   |  78 Pagessocialist countries decided, or were forced, to start a painful process of transition, which would enable them to become capitalist countries in the future. The countries in transition have had to deal with numerous problems such as political and economic pressure from other countries, corruption at all levels of political and judicial power, and (un)armed resistance by certain fractions of population. The purpose of this thesis is to shed light on what Bosnia and Herzegovina and other countries haveRead MoreImpact of Globalization and Bangladesh18126 Words   |  73 Pagescomes in our mind. Developing countries like Bangladesh with vulnerable geopolitical locations and weak economies are now looking at globalization to strengthen their economy to fight any perceived threats. But the increasing role played by the western dominated institutions such as, the World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in setting the rules under which globalization is played, has placed developing countries in a much disadvantageous positionRead MoreChristianity as a Unifying Influence in the History of Europe6059 Words   |  25 Pagesmissionary work, its monasteries, its education, it pilgrimages, its crusades, its influence on art and architecture and its Papacy it had united the peoples of Europe. By the thirteenth century all of Europe was Christian. Its ideas penetrated every aspect of life and every political and economic arrangement. Its churches could be seen in the major cities as well as the mountainside villages of rural Europe. Its bishops were part of the politics of countries at the highest level and for manyRead MoreWorld Peace8312 Words   |  34 Pagesvoluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance that prevents warfare. The term is sometimes used to refer to a cessation of all hostility among all individuals. For example, World Peace could be crossing boundaries via  human rights,  technology,  education,  engineering,  medicine,  diplomats  and/or an end to all forms of fighting. ------------------------------------------------- Possibility While world peace is theoretically possible, some believe that  human nature  inherently prevents it.[1][2]  ThisRead MoreEssay on Period 3 Test7186 Words   |  29 Pagesconcern about which of the following? a. No entangling alliances with foreign countries b. The dangers of standing armies c. Self-government d. The separation of church and state 8. The â€Å"storm† that Henry refers to was most directly the result of which of the following? a. American efforts to trade with Spain and France b. British efforts to shrink a budget deficit after the French and Indian War c. British unwillingness to fight Indian tribes on the frontier d. British impressments of American sailors

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Pipeline, Fracking, And Climate Change - 1477 Words

Alternate Energy Sources and the Future of those sources Some of the major on-going controversies in this decade are Keystone XL pipeline , fracking, and climate change. These issues are co-related to each other and they all have one thing in common, energy from fossil fuels . Proponents for the Keystone XL pipeline fracking argue that it would reduce the energy dependence on foreign oil. Although they are good for the energy security of the US, it may be a step backwards in terms of controlling climate change and looking for alternatives. Our energy use has dramatically improved our lives , but this energy is derived mostly from fossil fuels and has resulted in environmental change , and depletion of fossil fuels (Shahriar 181 ). This leads to continuing military conflict . This resulted in developing and using alternate resources for the increasing energy demand. These alternatives can be helpful in reducing carbon emissions while ensuring the energy independence . These sources are wind ,solar ,geothermal, hydro, nuclear and renewable bio fuels. Some of these sources are renewable , meaning they can be replenished, while others like nuclear, are non-renewable, yet are clean sources of energy. For better sustainability , society continues to explore the challenges of these energy options to help implement the necessary changes for an environmentally friendly and energy independent future. Nuclear energy Although the second world war was devastating , it had aShow MoreRelatedFracking : An Unconventional Technique For Harvesting Natural Gas And Oil1301 Words   |  6 PagesFractually Inaccurate Hydraulic fracturing, commonly known and hereby referred to as fracking, has been around for decades- but it seems that it has only recently become a prominent point of contention in our society. Fracking is considered an unconventional technique for harvesting natural gas and oil. Where conventional wells drill straight down and can only collect from more free-flowing deposits, fracking allows for horizontal drilling into shale deposits and uses water pressure to enlarge pre-existingRead MoreThe Keystone Pipeline Is A Pipeline2205 Words   |  9 PagesThe Keystone Pipeline The Keystone Pipeline is a pipeline based in Alberta, Canada that transfers up to 830,000 barrels of oil into the United States daily. The pipe is 1,179 miles long, ending in Steele city, Nebraska. Although about 61 percent of Americans approve the pipeline, there are many environmentalists and other U.S citizens who are against the pipeline and the dangers that may come from it and the effects it could have. Supporters of the pipeline claim that it could create thousandsRead MoreClimate Change And Green House Gases1690 Words   |  7 Pageshave more and more environmental issues are coming from every corner. Humans are no longer living in a world where the environment is stable, but rather becoming unnatural and failing before our eyes. Environmental issues like global worming, climate change and green house gases are becoming more popular. Global worming or green house gases are happening because of issues like over use of fossil fuels - natural gas in producing of electricity. Natural gas is one of the big contributors in this processRead MoreThe Earth Is Warming1412 Words   |  6 Pagesmany species. However, animals are not the only ones afflicted by these conditions. A combination of harsh droughts, floods, and other weather disturbances cause people internationally to fight over limited resources. These factors created by climate change lead to instability that â€Å"creates a n avenue for extremist ideologies and conditions that foster terrorism,† a 2014 Department of Defense report said. In Obama’s presidency, he has taken steps to sedate the problem such as the enacting of the CleanRead MoreAlternative Energy Sources And The Future Of Those Sources1223 Words   |  5 Pagesmajor on-going controversies in this decade are Keystone XL pipeline , fracking and climate change. These issues are co-related to each other and they all have one thing in common i.e energy from fossil fuels . Proponents for the Keystone XL pipeline fracking argue that it would reduce the energy dependence on foreign oil. Although they are good for the energy security of the US, it may be a step backwards in terms of controlling climate change and looking for alternatives. Our energy use has dramaticallyRead MoreAbout 2,000,000 People Still Die Each Year From Water,1609 Words   |  7 PagesArguments to inform people about the water issues around the world, climate change, and how we should focus on protecting the environment instead of damaging it for money. In Chapter 5, Johnson introduced Sandra Postel and Dave Cole. Sandra Postel wrote â€Å"Water for Life† with the motive to argue against the lack of ethics for how water should be used. Dave Cole’s wrote â€Å"Stop the Keystone XL† to expose how the construction of the pipeline can harm our environment and that even though the 342,000 jobs lookRead MoreFracking : The Curse Of The Black Gold2252 Words   |  10 Pagescompany is most known for its fracking practices as well as its impact on Nigerian villages. First Supporting Idea: Effects of Fracking - The Shell Oil Company has made a habit of overstating fracking s benefits and understating its risks. You may be asking, what is fracking? Fracking is a widely known practice in oil and gas companies and is the process in which liquids are injected at high pressure into rocks to cause cracks that they can extract oil from. Fracking has a lot of negative effectsRead MoreMovie Analysis : Like A Freak By Stephen Dubner And Steven Levitt920 Words   |  4 Pagesbook of Strategy by Lawrence Freedman, I took the approach of Satan verses God while comparing the strategies used. FrackNation was a response documentary to Fox’s film, in other words, McAleer attempted to disprove all of Fox’s claims and to have fracking looked at in a better light. Studying many forms and interpretations of strategy, I was successfully able to discover the underlying meanings of the perspectives and motives of the two documentary directors. Joshua Fox decided to make his documentaryRead MoreFracking in Scotland1041 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿You have probably come across the term fracking in the news quite recently and perhaps wondered if the reality is as ugly as the word. There is an ever rising body of evidence, that there are inherent and unacceptably high environmental and health risks associated with coalbed methane and shale gas extraction - hydraulic fracturing (fracking). This is fast becoming a global issue happening in our own back gardens, it s contaminating our water supplies and tampering with mass food productionRead MoreFracking, An Unregulated Chemical Cocktail Essay1681 Words   |  7 PagesWhat is Fracking? Fracking is a mining approach in which a well in drilled thousands of feet deep into the Earth for the express purpose of gathering oil and gas from fuel reserves deep within its crust. Essentially, drill teams pierce through the planets sediment layers, water table and shale rock formations before placing a casing of cement as a sort of access valve to the raw fuel. This casing also acts as a channel for colossal amounts of water, sand and 50,000 gallons of fracking fluid used

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Sixth Amendment - 2928 Words

The Sixth Amendment The 6th Amendment focuses completely on the rights of a person accused of committing a crime by the government. The 6th Amendment contains seven specific protections for people accused of crimes. These seven rights are: the right to a speedy trial, the right to a public trial, the right to be judged by an impartial jury, the right to be notified of the nature and circumstances of the alleged crime, the right to confront witnesses who will testify against the accused, the right to find witnesses who will speak in favor of the accused, and, the right to have a lawyer. The reasoning behind all of these protections goes back to the days of our founding fathers; when under the English law none of these rights were†¦show more content†¦The history in England and Europe was of people being sentenced to lengthy prison terms, tortured or even killed in secret trials. If you were accused in this situation, you often had no chance to defend yourself and the charges were often trump ed up to eliminate political and religious dissent. By requiring a jury to be involved in a trial, serious and sometimes fatal decisions are taken out of the hands of one or a few judges, and are put into the hands of a group of average citizens who look over the evidence. This greatly reduces the possibility of corruption in the trial. For many years, all juries in America had twelve people, which is how juries were conducted during the time the Constitution was written. Eventually, though, the Supreme Court reduced the allowable size of juries in state trials down to a minimum of six. Federal trials must still have twelve jurors. The Court also removed the requirement that juries be unanimous in their decisions in state courts. Instead, 10-2 or 9-3 verdicts are now accepted. Federal court juries, however, must be unanimous. That brings me to the arraignment clause. This clause requires that if you are ever charged with a crime, you must be fully informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against you. Arraignments must include very specific charges, including dates, times, exactly what allegedly happened and must reference the exact writtenShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Sixth Amendment1908 Words   |  8 PagesThe Sixth Amendment was ratified on December 15, 1791. It guarantees rights related to criminal prosecutions in federal courts and it was ruled that these rights are fundamental and important. The Sixth Amendment gives the accused the right to speedy and public trial by the impartial jury. The accused has the right to be informed of the nature and reason of accusation and also be confronted with the witness against him as well as obtaining witness in his favor. In this research paper I will provideRead MoreHistory and Development of the Sixth Amendment Essay1044 Words   |  5 PagesMut hu S. Weerasinghe Constitutional Law LS 305 – 01 Unit 7 Essay The Sixth Amendment of the Bill of Rights contains seven clauses that protect the rights of the accused. The amendment assures the accused that â€Å"In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall haveRead MoreThe Sixth Amendment: Providing Justice for Everyone Essay731 Words   |  3 PagesThe 6th Amendment: Providing Justice for Everyone Prior to the Revolutionary War, if the British accused a colonist of a crime, he would most likely receive an unfair trial and a prison sentence. When the Founding Fathers wrote the Bill of Rights, they believed that all Americans deserved rights which the British had not given them. The 6th Amendment provides many legal rights to United States citizens that protect them from being wrongly convicted of crimes. The 6th Amendment is the most importantRead MoreImportance Of The Sixth Amendment1735 Words   |  7 Pagescreate the sixth amendment in 1789 in attempt to codify fairness. When thinking about what the word fair means, one should think of a â€Å"marked by impartiality and honest: free from self-interest, prejudice, or favoritism† (Fair). Overall, the sixth amendment was created to â€Å"guarantee the right to criminal defendants, including the right to a public trial without unnecessary delay, the right to know who your accusers are and the nature of the charges and evidence against you† (Sixth Amendment). This meansRead MoreFourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments to the Constitution Essay887 Words   |  4 PagesCJL 4064 Amendment Project As requested by the committee chair, I have examined the 4th, 5th, and 6th Amendments of our Constitution. It is imperative for the participants of the Constitutional Convention to update, and furthermore, enhance the Bill of Rights. The amendments were created with a valuable perspective on individual rights in the 1700s. Today, in 2010, our country has developed in the use of language, our principles, and our overall society. After close examination of theRead Morehearings is to further the transparency course as espoused by the sixth amendment of the2300 Words   |  10 Pageshearings is to further the transparency course as espoused by the sixth amendment of the constitution. However, the open criminal proceedings are at the discretion of the judge because there are some trials that touch on national security or where minors are involved. During this deliberation, the judge is informed by the first amendment of freedom of press and speech, but these rights must be weighed according to prevailing circumstances. In such cases, the judge will issue order barring the mediaRead MoreMy Cousin Vinny : Truth, Justice And The Gambini Way968 Words   |  4 Pagesremain silent, anything may be held against the individual in a court of law. â€Æ' During the interrogation, Bill Gambini was not aware of his present charges nor his right to obtain an attorney, in addition, proceeded to be a violation of his sixth amendment right. This is a contrast due to the experience of a detective whom would not violate any constitutional right to insure that the case is unshakable. The Beechum County Sheriff’s Department obtained a coerced confession from Bill Gambini, anotherRead MoreCase Analysis : Crawford V. Washington944 Words   |  4 PagesEvid. 804(b)(3) (2003)† (Id. at 40). The defense objected to the use of this evidence in court because it violated his Sixth Amendment right â€Å"to be confronted with the witnesses against him† (Id. at 40). The trial court allowed the evidence to be admitted by citing an earlier decision, in Ohio v. Roberts, 448 U.S. 56 (1980), that the Supreme Court’s description of Sixth Amendment rights did not bar the prosecution from admitting a statement from an unavailable witness, â€Å"†¦ if the statement bears â€Å"adequateRead MoreDavis V. Washington ( 2006.990 Words   |  4 Pagesof Davis v. Washington (2006), the Supreme Court needed to decide on whether or not a statement that is made to law enforcement personnel during a 911 call or at a crime scene are â€Å"testimonial† and would thus be subject to the requirements of the Sixth Amendment’s Confrontation Clause. The case begins with a call made to a 911 emergency operator that was quickly disconnected before anyone was able to speak a word. The 911 operator, most likely following policy, called the number back. When the callRead MoreWho Is A Criminal Offender?1542 Words   |  7 Pagesthe history of the S ixth Amendment, information on self-representation process, individuals charged with a felony who use pro se, court cases dealing with pro se, and lastly laws in Virginia pertaining to criminal pro se defendants. Sixth Amendment First and foremost the criminal justice system is what it is today due to the first ten amendments to the Constitution that was ratified on December 15, 1971, also known as the Bill of Rights (Worrell and Moore, 2014). These amendments set the pathway for

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Introduction To Dementia Care Clinical Neuroscience

Question: Describe about the Introduction To Dementia Care for Clinical Neuroscience. Answer: Introduction Dementia is a chronic, progressive deterioration of the human cognitive functions, much severe than what usually occurs in normal aging. It slowly affects a persons memory, intellect, learning, and other higher mental functions, except consciousness. On further progression of the disease, the person becomes disoriented, withdrawn, and loses control of ones own bodily functions, eventually leading to death. Dementia might be attributed to genetic causes, even as hypothyroidism, Vitamin B12 deficiency, and infections like neuro-syphillis also are known to trigger the early onset of the disease (WHO, 2016). Dementia usually occurs in individuals over 65 years of age, and the disease causes some of the symptoms of aging to occur prematurely. Various mechanisms related to aging and aging theories are attributed to trigger the symptoms of dementia, such as the neuronal mitochondrial damage, formation of plaques, white matter damage, altered synaptic connectivity etc. However, the natural process of aging must not be confused with accelerated aging seen in dementia due to pathological changes (Appendix). Hence, a single theory of aging cannot be proved to justify accelerated aging in dementia; the interventions must be planned addressing to all the pathological changes that occur within the brain due to the disease. (Powers, 2005) Cognitive examination is mostly used as a diagnostic testing, along with neuro-imaging techniques. Till date, a complete cure for the disease is not found, though a lot of treatment methods are being researched upon. However, there are a few measures to improve the quality of life of individuals affected with dementia and their caregivers. Cognitive, functional, behavioural, and psychological interventions can help delay the rapid progression of the disease, making the individuals condition manageable. This essay discusses the different manifestations of dementia and its associated changes, its impact on the quality of life, roles and responsibilities of the caregivers, and the strategies to effectively manage the disease. Dementia and its management Most of the types of dementia are characterized by slowly progressing irreversible damage to the brain (Savva et al., 2009). Four major types of the disease are discussed here. (Alzheimers Association, 2009) Alzheimers disease is accountable for nearly 50% of the individuals diagnosed with Dementia. It is usually an inherited genetic disorder, characterized by short term memory loss, disorientation, agitation, and withdrawal from society. Upon onset, progressive atrophy of the brain cells triggers the symptoms. Vascular Dementia is accountable for nearly 20% of the individuals diagnosed with Dementia. It is caused by vascular damage to the brain, as in a cerebrovascular accident, with the severity of the disease depending on the area of the vascular injury. Dementia with Lewy Bodies is accountable for nearly 10% of the individuals diagnosed with Dementia. It is caused by the clumping of a protein in the nerve synapses, thereby altering synaptic transmissions. The symptoms of this type, look alike to that of Parkinsons disease, though there is a difference in the pathology. Fronto-temporal Dementia is accountable for nearly 8% to 10% of the individuals diagnosed with Dementia. It is cause d by genetic mutations, and is characterized by severe alterations in the behavioural and personality patterns. Mixed Dementias are a combination of two or more disease processes from multiple types of dementia. Research is still underway on its pathology and manifestations. Dementia is known to take control of the individual and his family, and alter their activities of daily life greatly. Four aspects of the influence of dementia on the family, in addition to the Quality of Life are discussed below. Cognitive Impact In the early stage of Dementia, which is known as mild cognitive impairment, the changes are subtle, and occur sparingly. Forgetting a particular word, losing directions, inability in effectively managing finances leading to massive losses of money, etc are the visible symptoms of cognitive impairment, leading to frustration, violence and/or depression. (Laurin et al., 2001) Initially, though constant care might not be needed, constant reminders on various aspects of day to day life are needed to be given, along with managing the individuals changing emotions. Functional Impact As the condition progresses, the person might have difficulty in performing activities that have a sequence of steps, such as tying a shoelace. Initially, assistance might be needed in completing simple chores of self care, which might regress into complete dependency of the individual on the family and the caregiver. (Gure et al., 2010) The need for constant monitoring and the shouldering of additional responsibility can lead to increased stresses on the caregiver. Behavioural Impact The person with dementia often turns violent, as a futile aggressive attempt to jog his memory. Emotional disturbances like frustration, depression and violence make the person feel safe when alone and isolated, thus changing the individuals persona. The changes in the persons behaviour might be aggressive, passive, irrelevant or indifferent, leading to confusions in the familys image of the person (Kar, 2009). Psychological Impact The frequent episodes of forgetfulness, disorientation, violence etc can visibly alter an individuals relationship with his family, as in him the family sees a person whom they have not seen before, or wish to see. The family members are the caregivers experience depressions seeing their loved ones fade away slowly in front of their eyes (Alzheimers Research, UK, 2015). The increased sense of responsibility, guilt, lack of a quality personal life, increasing financial burden etc can increase the psychological stress on the family and the caregiver. Impact on Quality of Life The well being of the family of a person with dementia depends largely on the individuals disease condition and the rate of progression. Interventions to manage the disease, if implemented effectively, serve to improve ones QOL by slowing down the progress of the condition. However, though under constant radar for upgradation, outcome measurements of QOL in such settings face risks of discrepancies in reliability and validity, along with responsiveness (Logsdon, McCurry, and Teri, 2007). Nevertheless, the decrease in QOL in a family of an individual with dementia cannot be denied. In addition to these, the family and caregivers experience health issues, as sleep deprivation, exhaustion, and increased workloads takes its toll on the caregivers physical and psychological health (Brodaty, 2009). Having an individual with dementia in the family definitely has an impact on the finances, as the individual might not be in a position to earn, and the caregiver might not have time to earn in a full time job for the family. The loss of income, added with hidden costs like increased medical expenses, increased utility costs such as transport, communication, electricity, increased cost of aiding equipment; specialized diet costs etc have a risk of causing frictions within the family (Hurd et al., 2013). An individual with dementia will have to eventually depend on his family; and even before they realize it, it would become an added responsibility to them. In the initial stages, the dependency of the person on his family would seem to be lesser; the challenges posed vary with the stages. The family must be prepared to manage the individual and their growing responsibilities (Alzheimers Research, UK, 2015), which are discussed below. Reminding the individual to perform basic activities, basic details like names, phone numbers, schedules, appointments, etc., protecting the individual from injuring himself, getting lost, etc., Monitoring the individuals day to day activities, medications, toileting activities, etc. form the responsibilities in the early stages. Feeding the individual with healthy food, and guiding him on how to eat, chew, swallow, etc., Grooming the individual, by maintaining high standards of personal hygiene, Restraining the individual when he gets too violent, or when he heads towards unknown/dangerous situations, Handling the individual, as in supporting him when he walks, or carrying him when he is unable to mobilize form the responsibilities in the later stages. Additionally, actively participating in the management procedures of the individual, by constantly encouraging him to perform mind stimulation exercises, physical activities, medications, and constantly keeping one updated on recent researches on the condition, taking clear decisions on treatment, finances and legal issues with an unbiased, practical and a selfless standpoint, and consulting for expert opinion when in doubt, and seeking for help whenever needed is very essential. The caretaker must also care for themselves, and keep themselves fit in order to effectively take care of the individual with dementia. Though managing an individual with dementia is a responsibility that is unwittingly thrust upon the family, a selfless approach would help handling the issues more efficiently. If the family is kept well aware of the individuals condition and its progression, managing the disease can be made easier and much more effective (Etters, Goodall, and Harrison, 2008). Dementia cannot be cured, but can be managed in order to delay the progression of its symptoms. As an add on to the individualized care provided, Person-Centered Approach in Dementia care (Brooker and Latham, 2015) comprises of Valuating the status of individual with dementia as a citizens with entitlement rights, Individualized approach to management, with a personalized protocol for every individual, Viewing the world from the perspective of a patient with dementia and providing a suitable social environment to meet their needs. Dementia must be managed implementing a holistic plan of action, involving all the stakeholders of the condition. Setting of realistic goals, and planning a stage-wise intervention is important step in the treatment procedure. In the early stages of Dementia, ACE Inhibitors may be given to stall the cognitive impairments of the disease. Cognitive therapies such as mental stimulation exercises, behavioural, and emotional interventions are also performed to help the individual manage his symptoms. Psychological counseling and guidance is essential for maintaining the mental stability of the patient as well as the caregivers. Though many other interventions like music therapy, simulation therapy, reminiscence therapy etc are recommended, there is no strong evidence to its effective working. There has been research on measures to prevent dementia, and delay its onset in individuals with a risk of developing the disease. Performing physical and mental activities, intake of a Vitamin-D enriched diet, and leading a healthy and socially engaging lifestyle are the widely advocated preventive measures. Genetic counseling is encouraged, to detect the risk of dementia and implement preventive strategies early in life. Implementing a management plan using a person-centered approach can help improve quality of care, by involving the family into the treatment procedures, and involving a holistic approach to management of dementia (Health Innovation Network, 2015). Many ethical issues crop up through the course of dementia care. The diagnosis of the disease being told to the person who cannot comprehend it, the inability of the individual to offer informed consent to any treatment/research procedure, the inability of the individual to question the transparency of any clinical trial in which he is made to participate, the incapacity of the person to rule over his final will and settlements, etc form the ethical dilemma in the initial stages. There must be no compromise on the quality of the treatment provided to the patient due to his absent decision making (Brodaty et al., 2005). However, the later stages of Dementia present a lot of ethico-legal confusions and conflicts, causing a great deal of emotional impact to the family. This includes situations where the individual has to be put into a full-time residential care owing to inability of the caregivers to offer undivided attention; when the individual has to be administered a feeding tube, or when the person has to be taken off life support (Whitehouse, 2000). In such cases, an unbiased guidance must be given to the family and the caregivers of the patient, in order to enable them make clear decisions without guilt or ignorance. Conclusion Living in a family where an individual is affected by dementia is always a challenging task. It is like watching the person slowly transforming into a distant stranger. The progression of the disease is a complex process, involving various interventions in different stages of the disease. However, a clear understanding of the condition, and strategies involving realistic goal setting, can make the situation effectively manageable. Early identification of the symptoms is necessary to take calculated measures to overcome the influence of the disease on the various aspects of life. A person-centered approach, which focuses on valuing the patient as an individual and providing a personalized plan of care is necessary, to enable achievement of the treatment goals. Leading a healthy lifestyle, with a family support can go a long way in providing efficient dementia care, and providing a satisfactory end-stage care to the individual. After all, it is the immeasurable flow of positivity that will help the family sail smoothly through the entire period of the disease. References Alzheimers Association (2009) Aging,Memory Loss and Dementia: Whats the difference? Available at: (Accessed: 27 June 2016). Alzheimers Research, UK (2015) Dementia in the Family. . Brodaty, H. (2009) Family caregivers of people with dementia, Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11(2), pp. 217228. 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